This bilingual catalogue presents the City Museum of Rijeka’s extensive photography collection. It features examples of over 100 Croatian photographers’ works from the 1930s to the present day. It is superbly illustrated with some stunning photographs and has the biographies of each photographer. The texts are in Croatian and English – I was the English translator and also editor of additional English texts.
The catalogue was produced for the accompanying exhibition at the Museum which is on show from 17th February – 17th March 2022. The author is Ervin Dubrović and design is by Vesna Rožman. 192 pages. ISBN: 978-953-8303-15-9
The Croatian-Turkish Society of Rijeka was founded on 30th November 1995 with the aim of promoting friendship between the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Turkey via a programme of cultural, scientific, sports, economic, religious and social activities – and in March 2021, there was an exhibition on Rijeka’s Korzo that detailed and celebrated this close 25-year friendship. I was honoured to be involved as the English translator for the Hrvatsko-Tursko društvo, Rijeka.
Rijeka and Brighton – a brief comparison prompted by the opening day of Rijeka’s European Capital of Culture year in February 2020.
It was almost 20 years ago to the day that I first came to Croatia, more specifically to Cres, Opatija and Rijeka. I was here to write a travel piece for a Brighton based magazine for which I was the production assistant – when the editor called out across our office “who wants to go to Croatia for a week?” I stuck my hand into the air eagerly although not being 100% sure about where I’d be going. On that trip, I experienced a tiny piece of Croatian life and the Rijeka Carnival and was greatly impressed. In 2003, I left Brighton and Hove (the city’s full title) and moved to Rijeka.
In the following years, I visited many parts of the country but I always thought that the city was different and even the Croats I met on those trips told me that Rijeka stood out as being alternative. From music to art to literature this city has proved this to me with the opening of the Rijeka 2020 – European Capital of Culture (ECoC) this February and it made me realise that Brighton and Rijeka have several things in common so I put together a list:
They are both cities by the sea – south of their capitals – obvious I know. Brighton is the closest big city to London and a huge tourist destination. Rijeka is Croatia’s third-largest city, not, unfortunately, a big tourist destination, however, in the past it was a very important industrial and transport hub and with ECoC and all that this investment, opportunity and status will bring, it now has much more potential.
Theatres – both cities have theatres which came into popular use in the late-19th century. In Brighton the Theatre Royal and in Rijeka the Croatian National Theatre Ivan pl. Zajc. In each city, there is also an unused venue. Rijeka’s Opera hall was recently opened for the opening day of ECoC when several rock bands played well into the night and it has recently hosted a dance event, which will surely boost its rejuvenation. Whilst in Brighton the Hippodrome’s future is still in the balance. Both these venues have seen better days during their century-long lives.
Both cities have old original cinema theatres. The Duke of Yorks picture house in Brighton is an art-house cinema. It was one of the first in the world and was opened in 1910. It has experienced many lows and highs over the years but has survived and today it is still the oldest working movie theatre in the UK. Rijeka has Art-kino, which under a different name was founded about 1928 and then went through many variations and premises over the decades. The movies were incredibly popular in Rijeka, with films being shown from all parts of Europe, America and the Soviet Union. In fact, at one point in time Rijeka county had more cinemas screens than any other town in Croatia (45) and in the first six months of 1950 more than 750,000 cinema tickets were sold in the city. A law was even in force at the time which meant that the sale of tickets by touts outside before a popular film was screened became a criminal offence – those found guilty were fined, imprisoned or even expelled from the county! During Rijeka 2020 ECoC there will several locations arranged for open-air film screenings around the city and even on the roofs of tower blocks. Brighton also has open-air cinema shows during the summer. Both cities also have multiplex cinema complexes, however, these two small independent art-house cinemas have survived where other theatres have disappeared or been repurposed, and they still draw in the crowds.
Graffiti and murals. Both cities are adorned with murals and let’s say artistic graffiti. With tasteful and professional illustrations buildings, parks and other public spaces can be really brought to life, enhance the image and even become talking points and landmarks of towns and cities in place of drab, grey, depressing, crumbling structures. During Rijeka 2020 ECoC there will be an international festival of murals and street art will appear around the city painted by local and foreign artists.
Rijeka was and still is a centre of new music. In the 60s the first rock bands in the former Yugoslavia emerged here, in the 70s and 80s punk and new wave groups such as Paraf flourished. Later in the 90s and early 2000s, the club and dance scene was led by the Fun Academy and Quorum Colours. Brighton has always been an innovative place for new music. In the late 80s and 90s, it was a key place for the emerging dance and rave scene, which I really enjoyed. In the mid-90s I played bass in a rock band. My friends and I did it for the joy of music – we didn’t expect to be famous – we weren’t – but like so many others we did it for the fun of playing. 3-4 times a week we went to gigs, in pubs and clubs. This is similar to the feeling I have in Rijeka now – there is a varied musical scene, from flamenco to bluegrass and I have got to know several musicians by helping them with their English language as well as reminiscing about the heady 90s rave scene and concerts by bands that people here would have enjoyed seeing. Of course, all the musicians I’ve met here are much more proficient and professional than I was back then. One particular star from Brighton, Fatboy Slim has played in Croatia several times and Nick Cave, who is immensely popular in Croatia lived there for many years (bumped into him twice in Brighton’s shops).
Brighton is one of the key centres for the publication of The Big Issue magazine which was established in 1991 to help homeless people get back on their feet and make a small living from writing and selling the magazine. The Big Issue was one inspiration for Rijeka’s own magazine called Ulične svjetiljke which is now sold throughout Croatia.
Universities – both cities have renowned universities and big student populations. Several campuses and faculties are spread around each city. The students’ energy and enthusiasm are a constant drive in both communities. And of course, with large numbers of students come festivals and events to cater for them. Rijeka has the multi-day Student Day Festival – the largest in the region, which has just celebrated its 10th anniversary. It features cultural, educational, sports, humanitarian, entertainment and scientific events for up to 40,000 students from Rijeka, all over Croatia as well as nearby countries. The highlight being the weekend of free concerts in the very centre of the city featuring famous local names – something that made me reminisce of student gigs back in the early 90s in Brighton.
In Brighton the culture of recycling is firmly established. It is the only city in the UK which has a Green Party Member of Parliament. In the city, every household has separate bins for each kind of waste that is then collected by the council and dealt with. The City of Rijeka is trying – with separate containers for waste plastic, paper and glass for each neighbourhood, and it regularly distributes leaflets about how to cut down on unnecessary waste and raise awareness of recycling. Recently the city received more money from the government for the expansion of its recycling facilities. There is also one excellent initiative in the city called Riperaj, which is Croatia’s first repair café. It was opened in late 2019 and offers its citizens a free repair service (excluding any necessary spare parts) for their household electrical items and furniture and anything that would otherwise be thrown into the rubbish and end up in a landfill. It also offers a programme of workshops for everyone who wants to learn more about recycling and repairing household equipment. Repair cafés are a rapidly worldwide growing concept. Brighton also has its own Repair Café which was opened in 2012. During ECoC there are several green initiatives, such as Zeleni Val, beginning in Rijeka including the conversion of previously unused roofs of tower blocks into gardens and the greening of deserted areas owned by the city. Something that the local communities are invited to get involved with.
There are many other ways which Rijeka could also benefit from sustainable and renewable energy. Off the coast of Brighton, there is a massive wind farm with more than 100 windmills. Imagine the electricity which could be generated when the fierce “bura” wind blows!! Solar power too when considering the number of sunshine hours which the Adriatic Sea enjoys – in fact, a solar power plant on the nearby island of Cres is due to be constructed. Recently the Port of Rijeka was given a waste collection device – the Seabin – the first in Croatian waters. This simple, inexpensive bin for collecting surface waste is a global initiative that aims to clean up the water around harbours and ports.
Brighton has a very big gay community. The Brighton Pride Festival is the largest and proudest LGBT event in the UK with an average of 450,000 attendees every year. Although Rijeka does not come close to this kind of event, it is important to note that in 2013 the people of Rijeka voted against the proposed Article 61 of the Croatian Constitution which was upheld nationally as proclaiming that “Marriage is a living union between a woman and a man” – effectively meaning same-sex marriage is unconstitutional. Croatia’s first lesbian organisation – LORI – was established in 2000 in Rijeka and it supports the rights of the LGBT community in society. During ECoC there will be the annual Smoqua festival of LGBT culture which will feature performances, a concert, an exhibition, artist and activist interventions in public spaces, workshops, panel discussions and other activities in order to introduce visitors to the importance of queer and feminist history and it will be attended by participants from around the world. Just recently, in 2019 a new website, aimed at gay travellers and tourists was launched by a woman from Rijeka – gaytravelcroatia.net. Since living in Rijeka I have met many friendly, open-minded people of all generations from school children and pensioners, artists, writers, musicians and professors with whom I share the same passions, opinions and positive outlooks as those I know back in Brighton. Although the two cities do not share similar histories, I think that Rijeka’s past has only added to its diversity and tolerance for others as well as the desire for change and improvement.
Both Rijeka and Brighton like to feel as though they are different and independent. People visit Brighton for a weekend away, for the arts, nightlife and shopping. The community feeling is very close. In the 2016 Brexit referendum 68% of Brighton’s residents voted to remain in the EU. For me, Rijeka too has a similar feeling – immediately after the ECoC opening ceremony on the blackboard of a popular bar in Rijeka – Caffe la Guardia – whose daily pearls of wisdom over the years have been highly amusing and succinct, stirred up some reactions – read into this what you will.…..
Of course, this is just a quick list of things that immediately came to my mind after enjoying the opening ceremony of Rijeka’s year of holding the title of European City of Culture – many people I spoke to in the days following that day agreed that Rijeka should have a similar, although more modest, event every year. The year-long programme and the lasting effects after 2020 could be the initiator for a new annual Rijeka festival – RiStartFest (?) which would bring extra energy and interest to the city just like Brighton’s world-famous Festival.
Late February saw the annual Rijeka Carnival Parade through the city centre. An extra special event this year to celebrate the European Capital of Culture, and something that I experienced 20 years ago on my first visit to Croatia. Every year I am always impressed by the effort, ingenuity and joy that its people can create and in doing so make it unique – just like my previous home of Brighton.
So Rijeka, in the words of your own annual carnival slogan may you always “be what you want to be.”
My second book of the work of Janko Polić Kamov is the translation of his collection of nine poems which he published in 1907 – ‘Psovka‘ (‘The Curse‘). The poems featured are: Preludij – The Prelude Pjesma nad Pjesmama – Song of Songs Job Mojsije – Moses Pjesma suncu – Song to the Sun Intermezzo Dan mrtvih – Day of the Dead Ledeni blud – Icy Debauchery Finale
Also included are two articles: ‘Poe‘ – Kamov’s impression of Edgar Allan Poe and ‘Beneath the Aeroplane‘ his contemporaneous view of the beginnings of human aviation in Europe. Another addition is a collection of aphorisms published after his death in the Italian Futurist journal ‘Lacebra‘ in 1913.
I reconstructed the cover of the original 1907 edition.
It is available as a paperback, 50 pages, and ebook edition via Amazon.com here and Amazon.de, Amazon.it, Amazon.co.uk and also via many ebook channels such as Apple Books etc.
It is also available to buy from the publishers Modernist in Varaždin.
This is an interview conducted by Dario Sušanj for velikabritanija.net and published 09.09.2014.
Janko Polić Kamov, a Croatian writer and a poet, died at a very young age, but left behind a major work of Croatian modernist literature: the novel ‘Isušena kaljuža’ (‘The Dried Up Mire’). Literary critics often agree that his work was way ahead of the worldwide movements which were to follow in the years after his death, like surrealism and modernism, with writers such as Joyce, Kafka and Camus later leading the way, and they often label Kamov’s work as ‘revolutionary’. However, Kamov’s novel and much of his work has never been translated into English and an Englishman living in Croatia, Martin Mayhew, is now working on translating Kamov’s important novel. As Martin is doing this, he is also compiling a unique glossary of archaic and almost forgotten Croatian words and phrases which he hopes will be useful to any future translators who may embark on a difficult task of translating a work of Croatian modernist literature into English.
“They set off on a walk. Across the square passed a funeral, a long cortège of men, women and some kind of craftsmen’s guild. The music slowly followed the sad and boring step, under the gloomy sky, on the unbearable Sunday, which had closed the shops, cleaned the marketplace, brought people out for a walk or made them yawn at the windows of their houses. It was after noon. There were people at the side, who were looking blankly at the procession. The colourful robes, both genders, young and old, all with the same looks, which were neither of sadness nor curiosity, but of a kind of long, protracted and half-dead look, that notices nothing, but sees everything. The tolling of bells rang out like somebody’s voices breaking up then returning, sinking and re-merging like a castaway at sea. Arsen stared at the coffin. Behind it there cried one young woman, throwing her head wildly into a handkerchief and twitching her shoulders as though wanting to shake off some burden.”
– An excerpt from the yet unpublished translation of “The Dried Up Mire” by Janko Polić Kamov, as translated by Martin Mayhew
Martin Mayhew has
been living in Rijeka, Croatia, for about ten years; he first visited the
country in 2000 as a journalist, on a tour organised by the Croatian
Tourist Board, but in 2003 he moved from his hometown of Brighton to the
city of Rijeka, one of the main ports in the Northern Adriatic and a city known
for having a lively cultural and also alternative scene, not much unlike his
own Brighton. As his association with Rijeka grew stronger and stronger, it is
no wonder, of course, that Martin, as a lover of good literature, also quickly
found out about the works of Rijeka-born writer and poet Janko Polić Kamov who had been briefly active in the
early years of the 20th century. Martin decided to embark on a challenging
and difficult task – we could even call it a linguistic adventure – to
translate Kamov’s most important work, “The Dried Up Mire”, into English. This
has never been done before, probably owing mostly to the complexity of the task
and the fact that Kamov’s work is still not well known and recognised outside
the region – even though he is often compared to other modernists such as Joyce
Martin recently published a few excerpts from his yet unpublished translation on his blog, hoping, of course, to be able to find a publisher who would be interested into bringing this key work of Croatian modernist literature one step closer to the English-speaking audience across the world. This is why I caught up with Martin, asking him a few questions about the challenges he faced whilst working on this translation.
Martin, this is a rather predictable question to begin
with, but why Kamov? Except for the obvious Rijeka connection, how and why have
you decided to translate his works?
When I first came to Croatia in 2000 I
was given a copy of ‘Southerly Thoughts and Other Short Stories’ a collection
of stories by Croatian writers. Amongst the collection were two by Janko Polić
Kamov which grabbed my attention as being something extraordinary, gritty,
uncompromising. A couple of years later when I began working as a translator in
Rijeka I was approached to make an offer to translate his novel ‘Isušena
Kaljuža’ into English. Unfortunately that deal did not come to fruition and so
I decided to continue personally with the translation of Kamov’s work,
primarily of his short stories which along the way would allow me to continue
with the English version of his novel, the first chapter of which I had already
completed and shelved. For me the more I translate his work, the more I relate
to it, which is also something I think other readers experience and just
recently I have discovered that there are also other people working on the
translations of his works into two other languages.
Why do you feel that ‘The Dried Up Mire’ (‘Isušena
kaljuža’) is or could be relevant to the English-speaking audiences today?
So many people here in Rijeka tell me that ‘Kaljuža’, and Kamov’s work in general, is very important for the history of Croatian literature, because it is said that his work was way ahead of the worldwide movements which were to follow after his death. Surrealism, modernism, avant-garde, existentialism and revolutionary are some of the labels which have been attached to his work. In his work he refers to the political events which were happening in Croatia (at his time under Austro-Hungarian rule), he was against the system and briefly spent time in prison for his political beliefs. In this sense he could be seen as a champion for independence or more clearly a champion against repression, hypocrisy, elitism etc. in general. His work deals mostly with the human condition, internal conflicts, heaven and hell, madness, the dark sides of life, society, sex, alcohol, violence, death and religion. He was an early pavement writer. So, in this way his relevance to the English-speaking audience is important in that his work, when translated well into English, will shed light on the history and literature of this part of the world, in a specific period of time but even more so on a style which pre-dates the movements which were approaching on the literary horizon.
Would you compare Kamov’s work to any of his
contemporaries in the English-speaking world or, generally, in Europe? Kamov’s
life was cut very short by illness, and while ‘Kaljuža’ is his most important
work, who knows whether he might have even had a chance to be compared to the
likes of Joyce and others, had he just lived longer?
Firstly I must say that I am not
literary expert. My study of literature ended with secondary school Shakespeare
in England, but saying that I do like to read, and Kamov’s work, for me, is
exceptional and it certainly deserves to be translated well and published. In
that way literary scholars can come to their conclusions about it. Yes,
Croatian literary circles have compared Kamov to Joyce, Kafka and Camus and
have concluded that ‘Isušena kaljuža’ is in the top ten of Croatian writing, if
not number one. He himself was influenced by the writers of his time and makes
references to them in his work. It would seem that his work was ignored or
maybe even suppressed during his lifetime due to its content and possibly
because of other, more influential writers. He wrote the novel from 1906-1909
but it didn’t see the light of day until 1957, almost fifty years after his
death. If he had lived who knows what may have become of him.
I have followed your posts on Facebook as you worked
on this translation and it seems you stumbled upon many Croatian words
which have proven difficult, or at least challenging, to translate into English
or even properly explain using modern Croatian. How difficult was it really to
translate a modernist novel containing so many archaic words?
Janko Polić Kamov was born in Rijeka,
modern day Croatia but then part of the Austria-Hungary, on 17 November 1886,
and died at a very young age, being just 23, on 8 August 1910 in Barcelona,
Kamov’s work includes a vocabulary a lot
of which doesn’t seem to fit into what is today known as modern Croatian.
Slavic versions of words from French, German, Italian are mixed in with what
are now Serbian and Bosnian today which makes their translation into English a
real investigation. This together with the fact that he uses two verb tenses –
imperfect and aorist – which are virtually unused these days, and the
flashbacks and surrealism in the stories which seem unconnected and random,
plus the unusual syntactical structure of his sentences, means that translating
his work, for me, has almost become a process of interpretation. Every now and
then I will post a word on Facebook which I am struggling with and invite my
friends to offer a solution, sometimes causing heated, but mostly good
You are also compiling a glossary of terms as you
continue working on this translation. Do you feel this could be useful and
relevant to other translators who might eventually decide to translate other
works of literature from this period?
Yes, as I am translating his work I am compiling a
glossary of almost every word he uses in all of his works – it contains at
least three English equivalents of each word. In this way I don’t need to
remember every single word when it appears again as I translate. In compiling
this I have also compiled a dictionary of late 19th and
early 20th centuries
Serbo-Croatian to English from free online resources as well as a large
selection of Croatian dialectal words. In this way I’m trying to use the
English vocabulary from the same period as he wrote. In the end the final
glossary of possibly 50,000 words should be a unique collection, which could be
useful for the translation of similar period works.
Give us a top three words which you think even the
native Croatian readers today would have trouble understanding and let’s see
whether our readers have a problem with them! What are your English
translations for these?
Well as Croatian is not my native tongue is it not so
easy for me to say. Much of the time it is the context in which he uses the
words and expressions which take time to translate. Here are three such
examples in no particular order: none are a
woman’s breasts (origin is still unclear), budlaj –
werewolf (unknown origin), bilikum – a
special cup (German origin). Modern Croats would certainly have trouble
understanding these without a proper explanation.
Another point to be taken into
consideration is that over the decades various editions of his works have had
some slight amendments made by publishers and editors – they have changed some
spellings or even omitted words for whatever reasons, so I am trying to use the
originally published versions for my translation.
Would you like to see any other Croatian authors translated into English? Any that you plan to do yourself, should you be successful in finding a publisher for Kamov’s work?
There is enough of Kamov’s work to be translated and published as a complete anthology. This would be a great personal achievement. Of course if the cultural, literary or even academic entities in Croatia could provide funding for such a venture in order to push Croatian literature out further into the English speaking world, it would be a great step forward in the appreciation of all the literature from this part of the world. I am sure that there are many Croatian authors, past and present, who deserve to be translated. In fact today in Rijeka itself there are numerous young writers, many of whom are admirers of Kamov’s work.
Are you in contact with any publishers, in
Croatia or in the UK, who might be interested in publishing your
translation when it’s finished?
Yes, I have been communicating
sporadically with a couple of publishers in Croatia and the UK who have shown
interest, but due to the economic climate in Croatia being as it is, and the
fact that publishers outside the country have yet to fully appreciate Kamov’s
work, it is proving difficult to make an impression.
Thank you so much for your time and this interview, Martin. Should our readers wish to find out more about you, I suggest they have a look at your blog and, of course, if they feel that they can help you in finding a publisher and finishing your work, they are certainly free to get in touch!
This interview was conducted by Dario Sušanj for velikabritanija.net and published 09.09.2014.
Since this interview I have published my first book of my translations of Kamov’s works – a collection of 12 short stories – ‘Farces & Novellas‘ (May 2018) which is available at Amazon (paperback) and all other online ebook stores.
In May 2019 I published my second book of the work of Janko Polić Kamov – the translation of a collection of nine poems which he published in 1907 – ‘Psovka‘ (‘The Curse‘). More info here
On Winged Wheels to Opatija’s Riviera– 145th anniversary of the building of the Vienna – Opatija – Rijeka and the Budapest – Rijeka railway and 110th anniversary of Opatija’s tramway is an extensive and fascinating exhibition by the Croatian Museum of Tourism being held in Opatija’s famous Villa Angiolina until 31st October 2019.
The arrival of the railway and the electric tramway meant the rapid development of tourism in Opatija and the whole region. The exhibition details every step of the construction, implementation and running of the whole system even including human stories of the workers, drivers and the local people involved.
This is another excellent project which I am glad to have been involved as the English translator, working on the exhibition texts and promotional materials.
You can find more info here. Plus a report by HRT TV here.
‘Kako čitati prostorni plan’ is a new exhibition on Rijeka’s Korzo which explains the intricacies of spatial planing in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County. Written and produced by the Zavod za prostorno uređenje Primorsko-goranske županije it is a major effort to explain the importance of environmental planning to the general public of the county, which itself is celebrating 25 years of its foundation.
Over 10 boards of 20 panels, it explains the history, development, current status and importance of spatial planning in the county.
I am very honoured to have been in involved in the translation of such an important and interesting project about the county in which I live.
The exhibition on Rijeka’s Korzo runs until 12.10.2018 and all the online information in English is available here.
Interview for Radio Rojc about Kamov, the book and publishing, in English here
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